Our full range of large-space video projectors offer the highest reliability and robust yet lightweight enclosures, ensuring total cost of ownership that can be kept low even in the most challenging large environments. Our projectors for large spaces are usually installed in auditoriums, churches, theaters, exhibitions, concerts, as well as in other large sites, and have been used to project high quality images of monuments and large buildings. All of our large-space projectors offer brightness with a high level of lumens and are capable of displaying large images for a wide variety of contents.
Panasonic’s large space projectors include models up to 20,000 lumens of brightness with image border merging functionality for projecting large images with multiple projectors. High contrast image functionality with beautiful color rendering and excellent image resolution translates into the availability of a projector model for use in any space and sector.
The huge range of projector capabilities from Panasonic provides a perfect solution for every business
Our range of projectors offer several technologies, including multi-lamp systems, ecological filters, 3D projection functionality, edge blending, LED and laser and Digital Link. The pure color control function, which independently controls the brightness of yellow tones to improve color reproduction, offers superior brightness with optimum color options. Expansion features include horizontal and vertical lens shift and a multi-screen compatibility system. The projectors can be rotated 360 ° vertically to allow projection directly from above or from below and offer exciting visual possibilities. These and other features allow a flexible installation for a wide variety of applications and guarantee a quality of image and clarity of our projectors capable of surpassing the scrutiny of the most demanding projection professionals.
Click on the navigation links below to get more information about our ranges and select the Panasonic projector suitable for your business needs. Alternatively, you can contact us using the contact form to enable us to help you offer top quality projections. Click here heimkinoleinwandtest.de/heimkino-beamer-test.
Open a facial and body treatment room with which you will get juicy profits.
Are today more and more people concerned about their health and beauty . So much so that in Mexico, more than 80,000 companies participate in the industry, which together total monthly sales of $ 1.2 billion. But not only that. Rocío Muriedas, Director of the Mexican Chamber of the Physical Beautification Industry (Camief), assures that the profit generated by these businesses is 50%, discounting direct and indirect costs.
And while spas are the fastest growing segment in the industry (12% annually) there are other opportunities, such as salons facial and body treatments, serving both customers looking to relax and have a beautiful and moisturized, as Those for whom vanity is no longer a luxury, but a necessity – when suffering from acne, facial spots, scars, cellulite or stretch marks.
Michelle Lopez owns BeautyMex ( www.beautymex.com ), a clinic specializing in teas oxygen located in the Federal District. Your business has an offer that goes beyond the typical beauty treatments. She offers her clients an experience that includes aromatherapy, music therapy and chromotherapy (use of colors as a curative, antidepressant, stimulant and regenerative element).
Lizama explains that in her salon they meet different demands ranging from the simplest facial cleansings to specialized treatments to eliminate acne and blemishes, correct lines of expression, lifting, peeling, exfoliation, anti-cellulite treatments and stretch marks, as well as massages for Combat flaccidity and reduce localized fat.
Meanwhile, Marcela Vertiz, owner of VCI , a specialized beauty treatments business, adding that any entrepreneur interested in turning should focus its offer in semi clinical treatments for skin conditions that are not pathological. And the reason is that “these cases are treated by a medical specialist and this is what makes the difference in front of an aesthetic medicine clinic.”
You can also supplement your offer. For example, Benjamin Monroy of Medical Diamante ( www.medicadiamante.com ) uses a dietitian complete services of facial and body through ozonoforesis-to oxygenate, hydrate and exfoliate the skin.
Meet your customers
Michelle Lizama and Federico Martínez de Alba, of BeautyMex, are blunt in saying that people over 30 are the most cared for. However, a significant percentage of its audience is composed of adolescents with acne and scarring problems. In the case of Marcela Vértiz, from VCI, the clients are mostly women between 40 and 50 years. They, because they are in the pre menopause, present hormonal changes that provoke the appearance of impurities.
Take into account that the socioeconomic range of consumers of beauty clinics is in the medium to high level. As for the frequency with which customers come to the business, the entrepreneurs point out that it depends on the problem to be addressed and the goal to be achieved.
For example, a person who submits to a block of standard sessions goes twice a week to the clinic and, at the end of treatment, returns for another type of services once a month or every six months. “After treating a specific problem such as dermatitis, marks or wrinkles, 100% of our clients return for a facial, body or a massage,” says Federico.
In order to increase its profitability all year round and because the high season of these businesses is before and after vacations – when customers want to look good, mold their body, rejuvenate their face and protect against the effects of the sun, the founder of VCI created special packages . The company has services dedicated to quinceañeras and newly married couples.
Detect who your client is is essential, since this turn does not work the word of mouth promotion. Therefore, you must create a marketing strategy and invest in advertising . For what is this? Most people prefer to hide that they have cellulitis or stretch marks because it gives them grief and, when it comes to something so intimate, telling it could affect their self-esteem.
“You will never lack customers if you offer a complete solution to improve their health, fight their stress and make them look better,” says Federico Martinez of BeautyMex, who in five years of operating his business has treated more than 3,000 people.
How does it work?
According to respondents, the most demanded treatment was to lose weight and reduce sizes. Price ranges can range from $ 400 for a very simple facial to a combat pack of cellulite or stretch marks ranging from $ 5,000 to $ 10,000. The average price for a face treatment for blemishes is $ 900, explains Michelle Lizama. Depending on this, on average, a session lasts one hour although a corporal can take up to three.
The installed capacity is determined by the number of cabins – equipped with its bed and dressing room – as well as the hours of services. The more cabins you have and the more hours the business is open, the more you will be able to serve a larger number of customers. The estimated time between one appointment and another is 15 to 20 minutes for the outgoing customer to arrange and, in the meantime, prepare the cabin to receive the next.
Take into account that not all people are candidates for treatment. Therefore, it is advisable that in addition to the technical data sheets and “before and after” photographs, take a clinical sheet of the person to know – among other things – if you are allergic to something or when your last surgery.
“If you have a disease you can not be given certain services or apply certain devices because they can cause a reaction or trigger something negative,” explains Marcela Vértiz. For example, a diabetic person can not do a peeling.
The director of the Mexican Chamber of the Physical Beautification Industry (Camief), Rocío Muriedas, warns that although the personal care movement is very noble, both owners and employees of these businesses must have professional ethics. “Activity with the body requires not only dexterity, but much knowledge,” he points out.
He adds that because it is such a delicate sector – where irreversible damage can be caused – there are quality rules that can not be forgotten. For example, the use of the apparatus is regulated by strict rules of medical use. If your intention is to include these services it considers that the training and professional development are essential to ensure the safety of users rules.
In the case of BeautyMex, Michelle Lizama is obliged to comply not only with national standards, but with others imposed by her Italian supplier of equipment for oxygen infusion, which works at the cellular level.
Hire trained staff
There are estheticians, cosmetologists and cosmiatrists who are trained to treat the skin and specialize in cleaning and deep moisturizing. A cosmetologist charges about $ 4,000 per month as a base salary. In these businesses a commission is handled by clients served and products sold, along with tips, which compensate their salary.
You can go to accredited institutes – such as the Centers of Industrial and Service Technological Studies (CETIS) – to recruit qualified personnel, either at the diplo-mado level or at the higher technical college level in estetocosmetología. There are also many private academies in the country. But in order to guarantee a quality service, it is advisable to hire people graduated from those schools that are certified before the offices of the Ministry of Public Education.
Choose quality products
Creams and endocosmetic products are the heart of the business. That is why, choose suppliers that offer quality and guarantee that the customer will see results. For this, you will require the participation of a specialist intermediary. Remember that these are products that are not aimed at mass consumption, unlike the cosmetic lines that are in a supermarket. This is the main difference between cosmiatry and cosmetology with the rest of the beauty products of toilet.
Another very profitable area of business is the sale of products. For example, Marcela Vértiz trains cosmetologists to apply, treat and correct reactions. Thus, it promotes the brands of the products with which it works. BeautyMex also has exclusive distribution of both the oxygen infiltration equipment imported from Italy and the South African product line it handles – where the most economical and simple device is around US $ 10,000.
Haydee Uriega, Coordinator Camief, is commercial distribution in Mexico line PHYSIODERMIE Swiss products ( www.methodephysiodermie.com ). The businesswoman, who sells directly to spas and stores like the Palacio de Hierro, handles a wide range of items such as makeup removers, gel, pilaten, serum, foams to level PH and products that control pigmentation. She trains cosmiatrists or cosmetologists under all safety protocols. The minimum investment to be a distributor of this type of items is $ 25,000.
Equipment and apparatus
The variety of devices that exists in the market is very broad and not cheap. The most common devices are those that work through laser rays, ultrasound and infrared light that penetrate the skin helping to oxygenate, produce collagen and elastin, reduce wrinkles or mobilize fat.
Depending on the intensity of the graduation, the high technology and the aspect to be treated, you can find manual kits of $ 5,000 to $ 8,000, to more sophisticated ones that exceed $ 500,000. The average cost of a device that penetrates the cosmetic product to the skin, such as the ultrasound, costs $ 70,000. As you grow your business, you can make more appliances, but to start a basic steam equipment to extract fat and do deep cleaning or with a high frequency galvanic appliance that serves to treat more than one condition.
For example, to treat acne high – frequency equipment is needed to kill bacteria, while one of microdermabrasion serves to exfoliate layered with diamond. Carboxytherapy devices are used to remove wrinkles with a needle that carries oxygen to the epidermis, in addition to moisturizing, reactivating and reaffirming the skin to lose weight by discarding the fat via the urinary system. And others, like those in color therapy, fight aging with lights that go directly to collagen and elastin.
Rocío Muriedas, Director of the Camief, recommends opting for vibration equipment that is not aggressive to the body (such as the Etiole brand), have minimal risk and are simple to operate to provide a service of the highest quality.
Permissions and Licences
To operate this business, in addition to processing the registration in the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), you must obtain the licenses for land use and operation, the permits to carry the external advertisement And declare the internal civil protection program and the parking service before the city council or delegation.
Should have equipment, you must have a health license corresponding issued by the Ministry of Health through the Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk (COFEPRIS), being in charge of regulating perfumery, beauty and grooming . You will also require a physician to act as the responsible.
“If you want to offer other applications – such as botox – you need a” medical responsive “and have personnel prepared to provide first aid,” warns Rocío Muredas, de la Camief. In addition, you must register the business with the Federal Prosecutor’s Office (Profeco) to comply with Mexican Official Standard NOM-110-SCFI-2004 that regulates the Business Practices in the Provision of Services for Physical Beautification, which you can consult on the page Of the Ministry of Economy: www.economia.gob.mx/work/normas/noms/2004/110scfi.pdf.
“Fortunately, the procedures have been streamlined,” says Benjamín Monroy of Médica Diamante, who obtained all the licenses and permits in one month, spending in total less than $ 8,000 for a two-story esthetic clinic with around 500m2 of construction and A large installed capacity (six cabins and one office).
Soon, a certificate of the Camief will be available, which will give certainty to the clients on the quality of the services in aesthetics, rooms and beauty clinics, makeup studios, spas and cabins of facials and corporal.
BeautyMex started with an investment of more than $ 1 million that recovered in less than a year. Currently employs 10 people. For its part, Marcela Vértiz opened VCI nine years ago with an investment of $ 50,000, starting with the basics: stretcher and products, without any apparatus. He financed the payment of rent and business expenses during the first year and went to the second when, once credited, he began to generate profits.
Six months after its opening, Médica Diamante had accumulated more than 100 clients, employing two doctors, two nurses, two cosmiatrists and two service people. It is a clinic where, in addition to ozonephoresis treatments at the cellular level, medical therapies are given for arterial chelation and autohemotherapy that treat diseases such as arthritis and lupus. With this trend, Benjamin Monroy expects to recover his investment in a year and a half more, since from the fifth month he reached his break-even point and has not had to finance the operating expenses of the business.
You can open a clinic basic beauty that only count with a cabin and a team of mutifuncional appliances with an investment of $ 100,000. If you want a more complete appliance, greater range of products and equipment of the highest quality, the amount can reach $ 200,000. To open a larger beauty center, with several booths and sophisticated gadgets, the investment oscillates in $ 1.5 million.
In this model, with an initial budget of $ 224,410, it is supposed to rent a premises of at least 100m2 – located preferably inside a commercial square or in a zone of good location, for which would be paid $ 18,000 monthly. In remodeling and refurbishing the therapy booth, as well as buying paintings and other items for interior decoration, another $ 18,200 would be spent.
Furniture and equipment, would be destined $ 129,760, that includes $ 14,760 for reception room, furniture, whites and purchase of sheets, blankets and towels. It includes two appliances for the service of more than one beauty technique (an ultrasonic of $ 70,000 and a skin scover of $ 20,000) and fine endocosmetic products for an amount of $ 25,000.
Equipping the office area, cleaning supplies, first aid kit, buying the outdoor advertisement and paying for all the permits and licenses needs an investment of $ 24,400. On the website, printing materials and advertising investment would spend $ 34,050.
In order to obtain more income, benefit from the facilities and cover other needs of the clientele, Rocío Muriedas suggests combining the reception area of the beauty care salon with a hairstyle, makeup or nails, since in certain treatments – such as Bodily – customers get out of the bath and perhaps like to pay for an express drying service.
A standard facial treatment session lasts 45 minutes between exfoliation, mask application, washing and creams. Therefore, if the business operates 10 hours a day, under a schedule of 9:00 a.m. At 7:00 p.m. From Monday to Friday and if between session and session you leave 15 minutes, you can serve up to 10 customers per day. This considering that you only have one booth and one cosmiatrist. This way you can receive up to 210 people per month in the average 21 days you work.
Providing this or another standard treatment of the same duration, at an average price of $ 900, in this model is assumed to start at 30% of installed capacity, which would serve three people a day during the first month, obtaining immediately $ 56.700 . As the business is positioned, sales increase and an average of six customers per day, for the sixth month would record sales of $ 118,800, reaching seven customers per day by the end of the first year, generating $ 144,900. Thus, the sum of this income for the 1,301 treatments provided in the year amounts to $ 1,170,900.
In addition, of these more than 1,000 services served, it is assumed that a quarter of clients – that is, 325 people – paid an average of $ 250 for a make-up or hairstyle session after taking their treatment, so this area Would generate additional sales for $ 47,713.
In this way, cumulative total revenues for the year amount to $ 1,218,613, which would mean a monthly sales average of $ 101,551, which would not only cover $ 52,353 of average monthly operating expenses, but would leave earnings of $ 49,198 per month, with A profit margin of almost 50%.
Finally, in order to pay for expenses such as rent, utilities, salaries of the cosmetologist, payments for laundry and the purchase of essential disposables (such as cottons, disposable facial tissues and wipes), 50% of $ 628,240 of total annual expenses.
Know the easy guide that presents all the data, information and strategies you need to open an innovative health center in Spain.
What is a health center?
A health center (CS) in Spain is a building where primary and urgent health needs are met in a population. Most of the health centers are public but you can also find much smaller private institutes.
These are the basic components of a health center
The elements that make up a health center vary by size and ability , however, to be considered as such should offer basic services such as:
- Family doctor.
- Social work.
- Administrative staff.
- Cleaning staff.
- Security staff.
Some health centers in Spain offer broader services such as psychology, psychiatry, rheumatology, etc., but as I mentioned earlier, everything depends on how great your business idea and your budget .
More complex specialties (such as surgeries) are usually treated in hospitals, sanitariums, or clinics nearby.
Is a health center cost-effective?
Health, like food, is a basic necessity for the human being, although the present is a little gray. The future of healthcare in Spain is much more hopeful because it will be based on greater collaboration between public health and private, as a strategy to improve the sustainability of the health system.
The Spanish private healthcare sector was prepared to supply public health in 2014, following a cut of 35.6% in the General Budgets. – 20 Minutes
Source of news: Private healthcare is in good health
What options do you have for setting up your health center?
A health center is a very general concept, therefore, should clearly define what type institution want to create and for what purposes . Among the possibilities you have are:
- Center for specialized care (maternity, psychiatric, etc.).
- Primary care center (CAP).
Easy business plan for your health center
To make your business idea equipment you need to consolidate a number of information under a business plan so you can present it to your team, your investors and determine if your business idea is profitable .
But … How do you know if your health center is profitable?
You should conduct a series of studies and plans that will help you focus your business even more and determine which niche markets would be more viable for you.
In addition to your business plan, your business will need:
- Market research : to determine which market sectors that have more needs are.
- Study the competition : to know how your competitors behave, what they do, how they do and overcome.
- Sales Plan : is the guide to sell your services.
- Marketing plan : specific step by step how you should do your business advertising, where, why public; As well as how to keep your customers loyal to your company, etc.
- Accounting : is the guide for setting accounting of your business.
- Contingency plan : the plan of action for when any emergency arises (be ironic if your business comes down by an emergency unserved time right?).
RECOMMENDED READING: 10 Commandments for writing a business plan
Once you have your complete business plan, I suppose you have already focused your business in a certain area.
Let’s look at an example:
- The business idea: a health center to provide services first and second level at low cost and with the use of innovative technologies.
1. An innovative health center is the key to success
Creating a health center that copies exactly what already exists is not cost effective. What good is it for a user to have two very similar options? The key to your business survives is the advantage it has over the competition, value added and of course, innovation . If there are health centers nearby that do not specialize in a particular area, focus on it and make the most of it!
I recommend that you include in your health center use of Internet and new technologies, as attention on social networks, questions section, online consultations and other devices remotely care to reduce costs, streamline processes and be at the same level Than your customers.
If most of the potential patients are not familiar with the new technologies, why use them in a health center? Because medicine is changing and the projections for the future are very favorable. Older people are almost always accompanied by someone who knows the technology well and it is becoming more intuitive and easy to use.
Another important aspect to consider is that inevitably users today will be your customers in the future , so they will feel “comfortable” using all these new devices.
If I still do not believe, you can look at the infographic (in English) on ” available technology and preventive health care .”
2. What does a health center need?
Despite the available technology and new advances in preventive health the most important health center remains the quality and reliability professionals .
2.1 Support staff
Since it is good to know that having the best professionals in the health area it will not be cheap and will have to compete with others to have them in your business. Look for the advice of expert companies in recruiting health personnel, create spaces and strategies that encourage them to go to work in your company.
Do not forget that the requirement is also an important point in forging the reputation of your business. You must make your employees think: ” I want to work in this company because it provides different treatment for staff and patients techniques, also has everything one might need .” It sounds nice, but getting it will cost you a lot of dedication and effort.
2.2 The location
You must strategically choose the location of your health center. Getting there and nearby buildings are vital to make your business profitable. You can read my article on locate your local business so you have a better idea.
Your local needs : an entry emergency, a waiting room, specialized care rooms, rooms, toilets, cafeteria, rooms for nurses and doctors, emergency exits, stairs, advisors, access for people with disabilities, among others. For more information you can go to the page of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality .
2.3 Required equipment
The specialization of your health center will determine which equipments are necessary but like any business you must have the minimum necessary: furniture, chairs, desks, tables, decoration, lighting, beds, stretchers, water dispensers, cleaning equipment, Shelves, warehouses, etc.
3. Make alliances
Never a business has survived without help. Join with providers of all types to ensure the functioning of your health center and outsource vital processes . For this you must be a good negotiator and present your business plan and your action plan. Remember that everything must be within your budget:
Some of the providers that I recommend you contact are:
- Medical supplies (gauze, gloves, face masks, uniforms).
- Purchase, maintenance and repair of medical equipment.
- Laundry services, cleaning and specialized handling of toxic waste.
- Instrument sterilization service.
- Sponsored medical directory with advertising.
- Insurance broker.
- Medical Visitor.
- Sale of medicines, accessories and supplies for patients.
- Transport of patients.
- Small pharmacy.
- Rent of wheelchairs, walkers, crutches, walking sticks, etc.
- Development of web pages, software and applications for Townsville medical clinic.
4. Boost your business
The most effective way to fund a health center is to seek help, loans or loans from the government, banks and large investors. To do this, you need the financing plan and have an approximate amount of how much it will cost to create, launch and maintain your health center.
5. Use the Internet in your favor
Follow the steps of United States health centers that are at the forefront of using the web as an ally for your business. Create a web page, mobile applications and attend your clients in social networks to create a more competitive health center.
According to a survey of TechnologyAdvice made to 360 doctors in the United States you can say that doctors are increasingly accepted technology for their work (maybe it ‘s time to apply in Spain and Latin America):
6. Use social networks and mobility
A survey of ZocDoc found that 87% of American physicians under 56 use social networks movably to advise their patients , but they do so under a non-professional format.
When it comes to specific social networks, Facebook (with slightly more than 40%) proved to be the only means used by American doctors to report prescriptions, disease or progress in the health sector .
Undoubtedly, these numbers reflect that your health center can take advantage of and exploit these market niches to boost the company.
Spain is a country that consumes enough coffee, and therefore it is important to offer in the bar or restaurant a good coffee .
How to achieve it? In addition to buying coffee beans of good quality, top espresso makers below $100 plays a great role for a good final product: coffee with an aroma and delicious taste.
Although at first glance all the coffee industry might look the same or very similar, there are certain guidelines that you could follow to get your investment the highest possible return.
Types of professional coffee machines
Manual or piston: as its name suggests, it is lowered manually a cam to generate the necessary pressure and make coffee.
Coffee machines of this type are rather a subject of collectors, not usually seen in business today restaurateurs. Although in some places where consumption is not very high, used with good coffee gourmet could provide a result worthy of the best coffee.
Semiautomatic are those which are most often found in bars and cafes. Function by pressing a switch which operates the water pump and keeps operated for a period of about 25 seconds, while the coffee is prepared. Once the coffee is made, he pressed again for the pump to stop working.
Automatic : This type of coffee machine is already set to “inject” some water to make coffee, so it is not necessary to disable the operation of the water pump.
Super automatic: they are the most modern. This type of coffee includes a grinder that grinds the exact amount of product, which makes the aroma and taste of coffee is preserved. The complete cycle ago grinds coffee, press and prepares coffee.
Tips for buying an industrial coffee
- The first step to buy a coffee maker is to determine the needs of our business.Depending on the amount of coffees that we have to prepare for the hour or day, we will require a coffeemaker with certain requirements or another.
- In Spain, coffee is usually prepared by subjecting a certain pressure and water temperature. It is up to the owner or manager of the machine to keep it in good condition for these two aspects are implemented in the right measure.
- If the business is small, it may be necessary to invest in an industrial coffee, but know that the coffee for home use that have become so popular in recent years (both coffee capsules as espresso machines that prepare espresso) they are not prepared for a large volume of cafes.
- Among the materials, it is preferred to be of stainless steel. With the boiler preferably copper.
- Some coffee machines have accessories that allow for example prepare cappuccinos or to “soften” the water, which in certain geographical areas of Spain is really important.
- One feature that hoteliers really appreciate is that the coffee has what is called “heated cups” as it has been shown that having cups at a suitable temperature enables better coffee, because when falling on a proper cup “aroma and taste are better.
- Take into account the space where it will be located.
- Compare different alternatives in terms of features, capacity, cleaning, warranty, spare parts, replacement in case of repair, etc.
- Finally, consultation with people who have this kind of equipment, as well as the suppliers of coffee and specialized hotel equipment consultants, they can offer the best solution to your financial capacity and needs.
You must also remember that a large part of the quality of coffee is on the maintenance is given to the machine by putting about in terms of pressure and temperature and cleaning it so that the oils waste of old coffee does not affect the quality. For this reason, the distributors of coffee recommend using filtered or “softened” water , as if very hard tap water used could be ruining the coffee slowly.
The sofas leatherette are a great alternative to leather sofa because for far less money can decorate your home and give the same warmth that if we had one of natural skin. The reality is that there are many models on the market that mimic the leather very well and sometimes will cost us differentiate from each other at a glance. But we must take into account a leatherette sofa requires more care so that no splitting or cracking, so we have to be more delicate when cleaning. In un Como we are going to tell you how to clean a leatherette sofa so that we would always like new.
1. One of the first precautions that we have with the sofas of this synthetic material is avoid exposure to sunlight and heat sources . So when placing them in our living room, we have to choose the ideal place for sunlight Do not give your sofa directly, that is, if we put it under the windows should make sure to have curtains, for example. Nor do I put it under the air conditioner. Heat can dry it and spoil over time.
2. What we have to keep in mind when cleaning our leatherette sofa is that never leave wet after cleaning. It is very important that we Let ‘s dry well with a dry cloth, away from direct sunlight as well we have told. Also, try to avoid any moisture on your couch, and supporting her head with wet hair or sit on it with wet bathing suit in summer.
3. Although many have used wipes babies or cleansers to clean our leatherette sofa, it is not right to do so because these deteriorate the material that protects the couch and this causes to which it will shine. We must always use a damp cloth , not wet, with warm water to clean any stain and dry quickly with a dry, clean cloth.
4. Before more stubborn stains such as pen, chocolate or blood, we can use a mild soap with damp cloth, as long as you carefully and clarify Let ‘s dry at the time. Another cleaner that can be used is clay stone or even a cotton swab with cleansing milk, as long as the stain is not gone with the above indications.
For more stubborn stains , and only a timely manner, we will have to use a neutral detergent with a damp cloth to make it more effective cleaning. To this we must do it as soon as the stain appears to avoid so penetrate the couch and affect other materials.
5. If what we want is a maintenance leatherette sofa cleaning London
, we can clean it every week without any problems. We will use only damp cloth with warm water only. If we do weekly, we keep the sofa clean dust and will prevent stains from forming or dirty over time. So always look as new thanks to the brilliance that follows for cleanliness and continuous toilet.
6. What I recommend is that you avoid this at all costs:
- Avoids the use of chemicals to its fullest extent, especially solvents.
- When you clean the sofa, do not rub vigorously , but do it carefully.
- Do not apply wax or polish on your couch leatherette, since they have chemicals that will damage the surface of your couch.
- Never dry them in the sun .
7. To read more articles like How to clean leatherette sofa , we recommend you enter our category Home Cleaning .
Technology is not only the new processor hyper-thin tablet or the potential offered by the imagination a 3D printer. It is also the aroma of freshly brewed coffee in the morning, work a masterpiece of engineering as the Nespresso Nestle, one of the first to market with the premium coffee capsules and creator of a business model that today attracts machine brands more massive as Phillips and Cabrales, international Mondelez and Argentine spirit of Che Caffe.
This is no small thing. In markets such as Europe, Nestle has really made a difference in your business. Not only are owners of 30% of the marketshare in the segment of premium coffee in capsules but sales have reached € 4,000 million in the last four years, according to a report by Euromonitor. Today that business unit means 8% of total company profits, a not insignificant number. It has been easy so far: a commercial strategy based on the intellectual property of the capsules has managed to keep away from the market other companies that helped develop.
Two news meant bad news in this regard for the Swiss giant. First, the decision of the European patent office -the regulator of intellectual property in the old continent to revoke the patent system coffees in capsules, which meant a blow to its business model with respect to competition : now you can not do much to prevent others from producing capsules entering their machines. Second, the decision of another big food industry, Mondelez, entering the market with a product that fits perfect in the gears of the nespresso compatible tea capsules machine and it costs half.
Although not the first company that you are encouraged to Nestle itself is the first heavyweight to do so. It is, after all, a company whose flagship is Kraft and, therefore, with enough to overshadow him in marketing and shelf space in supermarkets capital. It also has under its corporate umbrella two brands associated with good coffee as Jabos and Carte Noire, under which aims to sell its new product, this time less premium and more massive.
Although still far from the local market launch of the capsules in three key markets such as France, Germany and Switzerland it is no coincidence: these are the countries where most Nespresso machines have been sold.As would any technology specialist: if you have the hardware is easier to place compatible software.
In these lands other companies, like Philips, decided to go their own way. With a cobranding with coffee Cabrales created the Senseo coffee that does not use plastic capsules but similar to tea for a frothy coffee bags. Although sales pales before the giant Nestle forced, perhaps, to accelerate the time the launch of Nescafé Dolce Gusto, a cheaper machine with pods cheaper online, these other readily available in supermarkets friends.
Is the slogan of this business unit, more massive? As Valeria Pardal, Marketing Manager of Coffee and Nescafe Dolce Gusto, “Nespresso and Dolce Gusto says are two different concepts for different consumption occasions that complement each other: one is the experience of black coffee and the other is the possibility of having the coffee shop at home and prepare multiple drinks. ” The chococino or latte macchiato, among the richest.
Continue attacking the Premium segment
But if the market gets crowded, if they come to compete new players trying to break the -low brand, by theway- 180 per year for Argentine coffees, Nespresso’s strategy is to focus increasingly to that segment premium who does not mind investing $ 7 to $ 10 per capsule to get perfect coffee, such as cafeteria, George Clooney who tasted the style of traveling first class on commercial brand.
“Our business model provides a competitive advantage and sustainable growth because we are in the market daily luxury, a segment that in the case of coffee in capsules and home machines, has demonstrated growth year after year says Romina Fontana, Marketing Manager Nespresso Austral within what is the “new luxury” Nespresso revolutionized the market is a line of global trend in Argentina, where greater access to consumer luxury goods and sophisticated observed, represents a taste accessible”.
It makes sense, then, that the style of -Elite sales Premium- remains: to take capsules must go to a special boutique , as they have in Unicenter, in Recoleta or local brand of Alto Palermo, a real experience who fascinates the beans taste quality- or become a member of the Nespresso Club to buy online or by phone.
What makes a brand by selling directly to the customer, without intermediaries? Basically, controlling product quality and service. The first depends strict quality control system: from the company admit that before reaching hands of the consumer the product passes through 17 controls. In addition, the service side, the gourmet coffee experience in the boutiques , with recommendations as options, attend lectures and tips well payments- professionals try to build an emotional connection with consumers where luxury has much to do . Translation: it is unlikely that consumers will find a Nespresso competing with other brands in supermarkets in the neighborhood in the short term. It’s his way of telling Mondelez “I continued participating.”
The other resource not to lose a significant market share is on the machines, real pieces of engineering that also are aesthetically pleasing. The latest release in Argentina was the line Master machines.
So if even its natural market gives back, choosing cheaper or geographically accessible, Nespresso obviously he still has options other spaces where growth has not reached the European figures. The US, for its size, but also the Asian and Latin American.
“In Argentina coffee is a cult drink coffee consume -74% according to data from GFK but only in recent years the culture and the habit of consuming quality products developed. Today we are eager to acquire knowledge in the field and gourmet discover the aromas of different coffees. the consumer, when informed, increasingly demands “.
Who is who
invented the concept of “coffee pods” attracting a premium segment that seeks daily luxury. He patented the system and sells exclusive capsule machines – “true objects of decoration , ” say- departing between $ 2,000 and $ 4,000. The many varieties of coffee makes it one of the best options when it comes to taste, as in tea, different blends. The cost is a bit prohibitive , but that is exactly what they want.
Nescafé Dolce Gusto
The most massive Nestle brand. He arrived in the country in 2010, and its affordable price (cost less than $ 1,000 different models) became the go-to-machine of the aspirational middle class: 41,000 machines were sold. The differential is in the range: a combination of capsules can give tastes like Latte Macchiato or chococino. Starbucks at home for $ 60 16 capsules.
In each country Phillips looking for a business partner to provide coffee for Senseo machine and Argentina chose Cabrales. But they do not sell capsules sachets, such as tea, offering four varieties of coffee. They are significantly cheaper and can be bought up in a Chinese local commerce: 16 bags out around $ 40.
100% Argentine venture, sell Italian coffee in capsules, sachets and grains. Point, such as Nestle, two segments, one more massive with your machine and another premium Gimoka with Bialetti machines that accepts the three modes of coffee. The two go less than $ 2,000 and capsules, very convenient, less than $ 5.
For the corporate segment
Two ultraconocidas brands in the port city Illy and Lavazza are. Not many menus of the day that do not offer as an option to dessert and for something: its quality is indisputable and its presence is announced in the doors of cafes and restos. But for now does not point to home consumption but of restaurants and offices: although Lavazza has a store in downtown, selling is mainly by distributors and wholesale.
To start a business is not just having the desire to do or be surrounded by the necessary to take the first step conditions, nor is it making a hasty decision, or just be thinking that will make money and therefore must be take the first step, nor is it to take chest to your friends or achieve fame at the expense of what you do, not the business is more than that and we should see it as such, or rather give it the importance it deserves.
Many believe that having a business is to have fun and even that it is necessary to follow a process that often is difficult or in the worst case a hiccup makes you give up or appeared to you an opportunity with which you think will win double what your project you can generate and so desist and take another route and go adventuring so without achieving your main objective and that if it is a complete failure to be adding to your resume.
Not if you keep thinking like the common man so I want to warn you not to take that path because it is the worst decision you’ve made in your life, this area of business or impressionism you can generate high expectations or you can fall in a great depression.
so I warn you before taking the first step you must inform you of everything related to fitpro review, what you take, you have to be very methodical about this and why I wrote this topic and there are a lot of knowledge in this amount of block. .
you see that there is nothing else to make a decision if not rather be prepared to withstand the adversities that may arise along the way, I’m not trying to frighten if not rather you take strength … character …. and determination.
To learn English all know that we must be consistent, target practice and long – term goals. What we seek with this post is to teach you how to learn more effectively, make the most of your abilities and achieve your goals before, through tips como aprender ingles mais rapido. Practical steps that will make your learning faster and more fun.
Do not miss any opportunity: every time you have the chance to speak English, do it. Have no shame and practice the language whenever you can. Besides you can always try to go to class every day and throw yourself more. Do not feel ashamed. If you think it will be worse, and every time you’ll do better.
Do not apologize: not allowed to say something like “I’m sorry but I do not speak English” for fear of making mistakes. Remember that you are learning a language that is not yours and it is normal to make mistakes. Question, say you repeat it again and answers, learn from your mistakes. This is a more favorable situation for you as you practice English.
Do not be afraid of making mistakes: you may have perfect grammar, but your problem is that you are afraid to speak for when youmake mistakes and people laugh at you. Throw yourself, if you have a great grammar costs less sure you learn to speak. If you mess at first is normal, but the most important thing is to practice, and see how just talking as you write. The errors are eliminated only if you practice and remember that everyone who has learned a language has made mistakes.
Do not give up: as with any new to us that we had to learn anything, there will be times we feel we never get to speak English fluently.Nobody is born knowing. So you think like an athlete, if every time you miss practice more and more hours before you reach the goal you want to achieve.
Do not translate word for word : to hear your native language does not translate word for word, because if you would not slowing down the process. Do the same when you hear speak English. Pay attention to the words you already know, in pronunciation, gestures and facial expressions, and actions being carried out.
Listen to all: if you only pay attention to single words and grammatical structures will be more difficult learning progress. It is much better learn to understand sentences, as it gives more fluidity. This is achieved by watching movies or series in original version, listening to the radio or audio books. A fun way to learn and gives very good results.
Take notes: carrying a notebook or points above the mobile phrases you hear that you think may be useful in the future, phrases have liked or you did not understand. If you have targeted it is easier than you remember that phrase when you need it and be able to use a whole sentence instead of words.
Set some goals and have clear goals: What are your goals? Why do you study English? Why learn a new language? Want to travel to English – speaking countries or will you work outside your country? What are your goals? What is the learning method you want touse? Ask yourself all this and more you can think of to keep perspective and motivation, and know the reasons why you are learning this language.
Do not think that is the end: if you’ve reached a point that you think you’ve stalled, opt for other alternatives to keep learning. The more methods you can incorporate into the learning experience, the faster you will learn. Try podcasts, digital radio, movies and television, listen to music in English or even find another teacher or school.
Remember that your learning needs are individual: if you have a textbook to learn and keep track not have to stick to it in full, as your learning needs do not have to be the same as the structure having the book. Use it as a resource.
And finally … have a positive attitude . If you are constantly repeating that never get to speak English, then you will not. Recognizes the negativity, identify the problem and then give yourself a break. You can recognize that it is difficult, but I try and turn it back positive. Anyone can learn English with a little time and effort.
Steve Jobs was one of those entrepreneurs who followed a specific diet, one that used a lot of fructose. According to his official biography, written by Walter Isaacson, the computer magnate complemented his vegan lifestyle with large servings of fruit per day. Although many criticized her eating habits, Jobs managed to create a technological empire.f
So the saying: “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you how you are” applies to this case and many others, where food is part of everyday life and the most important strategies to keep pace work.
In order to know what are those diets that follow the high command within companies, LR consulted experts in the field to make a radiograph of eating habits that are imposed by health or fashion.
! No more meat !, with this slogan many businessmen have chosen to leave the meat aside and choose a diet that completely abstains from consuming animal products, including eggs and milk.
Another diet entrepreneurs with a point known is Bill Ford, Ford’s heir, who declared their vegan habits. The same happened with Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, which although it is not entirely vegetarian or vegan eats only animals the same sacrifice.
Habib Char, Life Coach says that vegan, which is a whole lifestyle, have become a trend because the benefits are when consuming products without preservatives and saturated fats such as vegetables, legumes, quinoa, seeds , grains, fruits and products that replace animal proteins.
“For health, many men choose this diet because they can reduce the risk of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes Also, with a good nutritional plan can receive all the nutrients needed by the body during the day, since food they consume provide the necessary calories and stay focused and allow more active during the day, “added Char.
Another diets that continue attracting the attention of many people, as well as the refrigerator, are the nutritional plans based juices seeking detoxify the body.
According to nutritionist and dietitian Fanny Aldana from oldschooldiet.com, this diet can not only be based on green juices, for example, because the benefits will be felt if supplemented with whole-grain carbohydrates and proteins, either animal or vegetable origin.
“The body should be in a permanent detoxification process so it is advisable to include lots of fruits and vegetables in your diet. Juices are a good complement, however, should not be abused of these, “said Aldana.
Deleted are other diets that choosing men and women to care business. This nutritional plan proposes eat foods low in salt and sugar to prevent diseases such as hypertension and kidney problems.
“When they reach the years and is in constant stress certain health problems appear and what better way to care for the body to stop eating foods without sugar, salt or high sodium content. This is one of diets which are used more “Aldana said.
If you do not know what diet to follow, look in your pantry and refrigerator to see what their daily productivity is based.
People who follow a vegan diet avoid eating animal products including eggs and dairy. More than a nutritional plan, it is a lifestyle that is inspired by a desire to improve health, preserve the environment and protect animals from harm and exploitation. Strict vegans do not use animal products such as leather, silk or certain soaps and cosmetics. In this diet you can also consume green juices containing vegetables such as celery, cucumber, green cabbage, chard and aloe vera.
$ 800,000 market price of a product for a vegan menu that is performed for 15 days.
Lovers of seafood usually join this eating habit representing consume 75% of fresh fish. This diet also prioritizes the use of natural ingredients and neglects refined sugars, including fruits and vegetables in almost all dishes. Red meat is welcome in this diet because it is important to eat foods rich in iron, as noted nutritionist and dietitian Fanny Aldana. However, moderation of these foods plays an important to enjoy the benefits that leaves the paper Atlantic diet.
$ 1,000,000 a market price corresponding to the Atlantic diet.
Low salt and sugar
Eat foods low in salt and sugar is one of the proposals of this diet that seeks to prevent problems of hypertension and diabetes. Animal proteins are recurrent in this food, which is recommended it is to avoid seasonings that can bring high sodium content. Among the benefits of this diet is the consumption of whole grain and high fiber carbohydrates, which help you have energy throughout the day and not think about the intake of large amounts of calories to satisfy the desire for sweets.
Studies in the United States concludes that two out of three vegetarians occasionally consume any animal products. However, the difference is that the ‘flexitarian’ does the normal way, without constituting a violation to your diet model, while for the vegetarian is a point break your model supply. Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, is a clear example of how you can share this taste for the club lettuce and occasionally eat a lobster that he himself prepared.
“Eating healthily is not to do rigorous diet or exaggerated, is part of a lifestyle and be able to achieve balance.”
“The best balance is to add more fruits and vegetables to the diet, and so will gradually eliminating unhealthy foods”.
I created a list of the main problems observed in email communications of many novice Internet users to verify, improve and control these details if do business via emailappend.services.
Those macho types know that when a woman driver passes in front of your vehicle shout: “Who gives you the license to women?”
Well, for the last two numbers a person receiving the newsletter sends us the message “REMOVE” but in his direction (to make the REPLY) and as a single figure figure: “His full name here”
The worst case is that after this number certainly very offended forward a message saying: “This is the third time I request disenrollment my direction …”
Before I cause my third irrepressible tantrum it seemed important to make a list of the main problems observed in email communications of many novice Internet users to verify, improve and control these details.
We dispatched about 100,000 emails every month and received between 1000 and 2000, so we have a long list of details to mention, based on experience. (And, paraphrasing the macho say: “Who will be given an email account these guys?”)
Fill out the information in your Program Email:
This is an error that we observed in one in every 100 emails, but can hurt a lot. Most programs have their name and description of the account (email address) included the time of installation. However, there is a special field, called “Reply to”, used to indicate that Your WANT TO WHERE YOU MESSAGES answer.
You may use the same address from which you send your emails or you may want the answers in a different one.
Who answer an email, usually do so using the “REPLY TO” function which automatically generate email response.
Some people who have not completed this field have cases like the one quoted above (friend “Your Full Name Here”) or the type of “Your Alias”. This hinders the work who wants to respond and in some cases can cause you to lose great opportunities.
TIP 1: Controls the field “REPLY TO”
The Firm is UTIL
Almost all programs allow you to generate one or more files with your “signature”.
Usually it is a text file where you can put your name, address, phone, website, other email addresses, etc.
As the program automatically placed at the end every time you refer an email, you should not be reinterando data.
In addition, programs that allow have several “signatures” you can use the one that suits you as the recipient that the message heading.
If our friend “Your Full Name Here” were using a signature, we could certainly get in touch with him to resolve the issue.
TIP 2: If you is useful, learn to use the “signatures”
Text not talk back uselessly
In many practical answers to reiterate the text originally sent us to provide the participant maintaining the “thread” of conversation.
But in other cases it is absolutely useless and the fact of making “REPLY” to all text that sent us is particularly uncomfortable for who gets the message.
For example : Our case, when some subscribers refer us ALL NEWSLETTER (about 30 Kb) to say: “Congratulations !!”
Yes, yes … make us very happy …
TIP 3: Careful / or not reiterate the full text unless it is useful or necessary.
Beware of Free Accounts
No doubt the fact of having servers for emails free and accessible Web is a real blessing.
You can create different accounts for different uses and, if Internet access is made from work or university, one maintains independence in its communications.
However, when you pretend DOING BUSINESS Internet keep in mind that your email address is the equivalent of your card or stationery.
Serious people shy away messages style:
“URGENT, I need investors of $ S 2,000,000 for important business.”
Answers to: email@example.com (not if there)
For just starting to navigate and addresses lists Business (like Grippo) and sends request information from free accounts, is rapidly giving a pattern that is an improvised / or that either seeks anonymity because dedicated to annoy or defraud people or, EVEN HAVE OWN EMAIL aCCOUNT (therefore much less is a potential partner for a business) .Ten this into account because it is much more important than you think.
And US They are limiting participation in auction sites and even the purchase with card- for those who send as addresses “free” accounts since most scams are committed with them.
Do not trust anyone who does business from [firstname.lastname@example.org] (not if there). Nor did anyone seriously expect TAKE SERIOUSLY you if you intend to keep your communication from [email@example.com] (not if there).
Tip 4: Have a REAL email address for your business communications.
Watch your spelling
Except for the accents and even the “ñ” that can be difficult to achieve in some computers, be careful with spelling for business messages.
A message like: “agradesco ME IF INVERCION REPORT OF A MILLION DOLLARS FOR THIS TO YOUR alcanse YOU SEND DATA SOLISITADOS” is usually avoided immediately by anyone “CERIA”.
We bring you a compilation of the best quotes of the film about the world of business. Inspiring, compelling and curious. For a film you can learn a lot! You can watch here movie4k.
The success of “The Wolf of Wall Street” in theaters around the world has made us remember some of the films that best reflect the world of business . People unscrupulous, manipulative, blackmailers loaded with power, ambition and a lot money are the ingredients that are repeated in this film genre.
But perhaps for that reason are the films that more lessons taught .
This is a compilation with some of the most memorable phrases :
WALL STREET – Oliver Stone 1987
The first film that reflected the true reality of Wall Street . Corruption, lies and greed are the ‘abc’ of brokers working at the epicenter of the global economy.
“Greed, for lack of a better word, is good, is necessary and works Greed clarifies and captures the essence of the spirit of evolution Greed in all its forms.. To live, to know, love, money . it is what has marked the life of humanity …. “
“I did not discover how poor it was until I started making money.”
JOBS – Joshua Michael Stern 2013
The life of Steve Jobs made into a film aroused great interest among the public. The tech guru and one of the leaders of XXI century has to his credit a large number of inspirational phrases on business . We stood with those that appear in the film:
“This is for fools. The misfits. The rebels. The revolutionaries. Those who do not fit the mold. The ones who see things differently, things change. Forcing humans to move forward. And while some see them as crazy, others value them as geniuses. “
“In your life you can only do a number of things and if now we have chosen to do something, let’s make it spectacular.”
THE GODFATHER – Francis Ford Coppola 1972
The classic Francis Ford Coppola is not just an Italian gangster film lovers spaghetti with meatballs. It also contains some of the most memorable, compelling and extrapolated to the real life of film history phrases.
“Always try to think like they think those around you. On that basis everything is possible. “
“Keep your friends close but your enemies even more.”
“I’ll make an offer he can not refuse.”
The Wolf of Wall Street – Martin Scorsese 2013
The teenage sister of Wall Street. The true story of Jordan Belfort scammer has inspired to Martin Scorsese to shoot one of the films of the year. Leonardo DiCaprio sounds favorite Oscar for his brilliant interpretation.
“- You need to be able to sell anything For example you sell me this pen..
– Do me a favor, write your name on that napkin.
– I have boli.
– Exactly. Supply and demand, my friend.
-¿Veis What I say? It is to create need. Make them want to buy the stock. As if they needed it. “
“Nobody stops you if you want to become a millionaire. But do not feel at home with a life full of dreams. Because this is how it ends. ”
THE DILEMMA – Michael Mann 1999
Based on real events . Brown & Williamson Tobacco was condemned by the US justice by adding to snuff addictive substances. A biochemical company dared to denounce a successful program of the BBC.
The film shows us the other side of journalism . Which puts the money to ethics or business to the truth.
“Is this news? Yes Are we going to emit? Of course not , Why ?, Why not tell the truth? No! Because telling the truth, that’s why we will not issue”.
“Fame lasts 15 minutes. Infamy lasts considerably longer. “
The Pursuit of Happyness – Gabriele Muccino 2006
The true story of Chris Gardner, an African American businessman who managed to lift his own multi – million dollar brokerage firm after being bankrupt and live almost destitute.
“Never let anyone tell you you can not do something. Even I right? If you have a dream, you gotta protect it. People who are not able to do anything you tell them you can not. If you want something go for this period. “
“- What would you say if a man is present in this interview shirtless and we gave the job ?.
– Well, his pants had to be great. ”
THANK YOU FOR SMOKING – Jason Reitman 2005
The adventures of a spokesman for one of the world’s most powerful tobacco companies.
The complex world of lobbies in the US and the power of persuasion are the cornerstones of this American film.
“The public will not affect words. You need images. Studies show that consumers react more with pictures than words. There are statistics. “
“That’s the beauty of argument. If you argue well, you’re never wrong.”
THE DEVIL WEARS PRADA – David Frankel 2006
The business of fashion magazines has a name: Anna Wintour. Although producers were quick to deny the relationship with the director of Vogue the resemblance is undeniable.
“The day that your personal life is destroyed, arrive your promotion.”
“A toast to the jobs that pay the rent.”
THE SOCIAL NETWORK – David Fincher 2010
The film tells the story of Facebook is one of the best plasma rapid rise in the business world. Even if it means ahead take your best friend.
“A guy that makes a nice chair does not owe money to everyone who ever built a chair.”
“We lived on farms. Then we live in cities. Now let’s live in the network. “
“A million dollars is not cool. You know what’s cool? A billion dollars. “
is a process of bonding materials in which the contact surfaces of two (or more) parts are melted by suitable application of heat or pressure. The integration of parts that are joined by welding is termed a welded assembly.
Many welding processes are obtained only by heat without pressure; other combustion by heat and pressure; and a more only by pressure without providing external heat. In some cases a filler or added filler to facilitate fusion. Welding is usually associated with mechanical parts, but the process is also used to bond plastic.
A welding is a relatively new process. Its commercial and technological importance stems from the following:
– Welding provides a permanent bond. The welded parts become a single unit.
– The union can be stronger than you original materials, if a filler metal that has properties superior resistance of original materials you used and suitable welding techniques as are used.
Although welding has indicated advantages, it also has certain limitations and disadvantages (or potential disadvantages):
– Most welding operations are performed manually and are high in terms of labor cost. Many welding operations are considered specialized issues and there are not many people who make them.
– Almost all welding processes involve the use of a lot of energy, and therefore dangerous.
– Since the welding obtains a permanent bond between the components does not allow proper disassembly. If an occasional product disassembling (for repair or maintenance) is required, the weld must not be used as a method of assembly.
– The weld joint may have certain quality defects that are difficult to detect. Defects can reduce bond strength.
THE QUESTION OF SECURITY
Welding is by nature hazardous to people. Those running these operations must take serious security measures. High temperatures of metals fused in welding are an obvious hazard. In the welding gas, fuels (eg, acetylene) are at risk of catching fire. Much of the processes use a lot of energy to produce fusion of the surfaces of the parts to be, to unite in many welding processes, electrical power is a source of thermal energy, so there is a risk of electric shock for the worker.
Certain welding processes have their own particular hazards. In arc welding, the worker must consider the following aspects:
* Mask welding, protects the eyes, face, neck and should be provided with inactinic filters according to the process and currents employed. * Leather gloves, musketeer guy inseam, to protect hands and wrists. * coleto or leather apron to protect against splashes and exposure to ultraviolet rays of the arc. * leggings and leather jacket, when it is necessary to weld in vertical positions and overhead, these additions should be used to avoid severe burns that may cause splashes of molten metal. * safety shoes, covering the ankles to avoid the trap of splashing. * Hat, protects the hair and scalp, especially when welding is done in positions. * eye protection protection of view is such an important issue that deserves separate consideration. The electric arc is used as heat source and whose temperature reaches 4,000 ° C on, emits visible and invisible radiation. Within not visible, we have those more harmful such as ultraviolet and infrared rays effect. The type of burn the arc occurs in the eyes is not permanent, although it is extremely painful. Its effect is like “having hot sand in the eyes”. To avoid this , a protective lens (inactínico glass) should be used well – fitting and in front of it, for protection, there is always to maintain a transparent glass cover, which must be replaced immediately if damaged. To ensure complete protection, protective lens must have the right to process and current density used.
AUTOMATION IN WELDING
Because of the risks of manual welding and requirements to increase productivity and improve product quality, they have developed various forms of automation. Categories include welding machine, automatic welding and robotic welding.
The welding machine is defined as a mechanized welding equipment performing the operation under the continuous supervision of an operator. Usually it is obtained by welding a head moving mechanically. The human worker must continuously observe and interact with the computer to control the operation.
If the computer is capable of running the operation without adjusting the controls by a human operator, it is called an automatic welding. A person is always present to monitor the process and detect variations in normal conditions. What distinguishes the automatic welding machine welding is a welding cycle controller, which regulates the movement of the arc and the position of the workpiece without continuous human attention. Automatic welding requires an installation or a welding positioner to place the working material in relation to the welding head. It also requires a greater degree of consistency and accuracy in the component parts used in the process. For these reasons, the automatic welding is justified only for producing large amounts.
In robotic welding an industrial robot or a programmable manipulator automatically controls the head movement with respect to welding work is used. The versatile range of the robot arm allows the use of relatively simple facilities, and the ability of the robot to be reprogrammed with new configurations of parts, allows this form of automation is justified for relatively low production quantities. A robotic welding normal cell comprises two electric arc welding facilities and a human adjuster for loading and unloading parts while the robot carries out welding.Besides welding the electric arc, industrial robots are also used in final assembly plants car for resistance welding of bodies. UNION WELD.
Welding produces a solid connection enter two parts, called weld joint. This welded joint is the contact edges or surfaces of the parts are joined by welding. In this section, and subject of the welds be removed, types of joints and various welding used to join the parts that form precisely this.
TYPES OF UNIONS
There are five basic types of connections to integrate two sides of a board, which are as follows:
a) Union butted . In this type of union, the parties are in the same plane and are joined at their edges. b) Union Corner. The parties to a corner joint form a right angle and are joined at the corner of angle. c) Union overlay. This union consists of two parts that overlap. d) Union of edges. the parties to a joint edges are parallel with at least one edge in common and binding is done in the common edge . e) Union T. at the T – junction, a part is perpendicular to each other in a manner similar to the letter.
TYPES OF WELD
All of the above are made by welding joints. It is also possible to use other processes for some of the types of unions, but welding is the method most applicable. It is useful to distinguish between the type of joint and the type of welding that applies to marriage. The differences between the types of welding are in geometry and the welding process.
Various forms of fillet weld: a) corner union with unique internal thread, b) single-corner joint outer fillet, c) union overlayed with double fillet, d) T-joint with double fillet. The dashed lines show the original edges of the plates.
a fillet weld is used to fill the edges of the plates created by corner joints, overlapping and ‘T’. a filler metal is used to provide a cross section approximately the shape of a triangle. It is the most common type of weld in arc welding and the oxygen and fuel gas. Because it requires minimal preparation of the edges; the basic square edges of the parts are used. Fillet welds can be simple or double (ie, welded on one or both sides) and continuous or intermittent (i.e., welded along the entire length of the joint, or space unwelded along a shore).
Weld bevel or groove generally require that the edges of the parts are molded bezel to facilitate penetration of the weld. Bevel shapes include a square on one side, bevel “V”, U and J, in single or double sides.
Some typical bevel welds: a) welding bevel square on one side; b) welding with only bezel; c) welding bevel V only; d) welding bevel single U; e) welding bevel single J; f) X groove welding for thicker sections. The dashed lines show the original edges of the parties.
filler material is used to saturate the union, usually by arc welding or oxygen and fuel gas. Often the edges of the parts beyond a basic square are prepared, but required further processing, to increase the firmness of the brazed or welded where thicker parts bonding. Although it is most closely associated with a splice joint, the welding bevel is used in all types of connections, except overprint.
Welds inserts and slotted welds are used to join flat plates using one or more holes or slots at the top, which will then be filled with filler metal.
(A) welding insert and (b) welding groove.
Spot welding and splined welding joints used for overlapping. A spot welding is a small molten section between the surfaces of two sheets or plates. Normally several welds are required to join the parts. It is most closely associated with resistance welding. A splined welding is similar to a dot except that a section is more or less continuous cast between two sheets or plates.
(A) welding points and (b) welding splined.
In Figure welds and welds flanks surfaces are shown. A welding edge is at the edges of two (or more) parts, usually metal foils or thin plates, wherein at least one of the parts is in one flank, as shown in part (a). A solder surface is not used to join parts, but for depositing filler metal on the surface of a base part in one or more drops of solder drops welding are incorporated in a series of superimposed parallel passes, which is cover large areas of the base portion. The purpose is to increase the thickness of the plate or provide a protective coating on the surface.
(A) Welding flank and (b) welding surface
Welding processes are divided into two main categories:
1) Fusion welding , in which a melt is obtained by melting the two surfaces to be joined, and in some cases adding a filler metal to the union; and 2) Welding solid state , in which heat or pressure or both used for fusion, but the base metals do not melt or a metal filler is added.
Fusion welding is the most important category and includes:
1) arc welding. 2) resistance welding. 3) welding oxygen and fuel gas, and 4) other fusion welding processes (which can not be classified in any of the first three types).
The fusion welding processes are discussed in the following four sections, covering welding operations solid state. And then, we examine issues related to all welding operations: welding quality, weldability and welding design.
The arc welding, SAC (arc welding in English, AW), is a welding process in which the union of the parts is obtained by melting by the heat of an electric arc between an electrode and the work material.
Electrical circuit configuration and a process of arc welding.
AW general process shown in figure above. An arc is a discharge of electrical current through a separation in a circuit. It is maintained by the presence of a thermally ionized gas column (called plasma) through which current flows. In a process of AW, the electric arc starts to bring the electrode to the workpiece, after contact the electrode is quickly separated from the workpiece at a short distance. The power of the electric arc thus formed produces temperatures of 5500 ° C or higher, which are hot enough to melt any metal. a well of molten metal which consists of metal (s) base and filler metal (if one is used) is formed near the electrode tip. In most processes arc welding, a metal filler is added during operation to increase the volume and strengthen the weld joint. As the electrode is moved along the joint, the well of molten metal solidifies immediately.
The movement of the electrode is achieved either by a person solda (manual welding) or by mechanical means (welding machine, automatic welding or robotic welding).
General technology arc welding.
Before describing the individual processes of arc welding, it is useful to examine some of the technical aspects that apply to these processes.
Electrodes. The electrodes used in processes AW are classified as consumable and non -consumable.
Consumable electrodes containing the filler metal in arc welding; They are available in two main forms: rods (also called canes) and wires. Welding rods typically have a length of 225 450mm and a diameter of 9.5 mm or less. The problem with consumable welding rods, at least in production operations, is to be changed periodically, reducing the time electric arc welder.The consumable welding wire has the advantage that can be fed continuously to the weld pool from bobbins containing wires in large quantities, with this frequent interruptions that occur when welding rods used are avoided. Both rodlike as wire, electrical arc consumes the electrode during the welding process and the latter as binding molten filler metal is added.
The rod electrodes are classified based on the mechanical properties of the deposited metal, type of coating, positions where the electrode can be used and type of current and polarity to use. The classification system used for coated electrodes follows the model used by the AWS.According to this system, the classification of an electrode is designated by the letter “E” and with four or five digits. The letter “E” means electrode, the first two or three digits indicate the tensile strength of the metal deposited in thousands of pounds per square inch, the third or fourth digit indicates the positions where the electrode should be used and the last digit it relates to the coating characteristics, slag, with the type of current and polarity to be used.
Accordingly, the different digits in the electrodes rating:
E 6 0 1 0
It has the following meaning:
E = electrode.
60 = minimum tensile of 60,000 lb / in2 Resistance
1 = To be used in all positions
or E XX 1 X = Any position (From floor, horizontal, overhead and vertical). or E XX 2 X = Horizontal and floor only. or E XX 3 X = From floor only. or E XX 4 X = De Floor , overhead, horizontal and vertical down. 0 = is an electrode coated high cellulose content and sodium-based and should be used with direct current and reverse polarity.
In some classifications of two electrodes digit (6) and (7) are additionally E-XXXX-X6X7 to identify the type of element that is after welding, for example:
E – 7018 – Mo
E = Electrode
70 = minimum tensile of 70,000 lb / in2 Resistance
1 = Any position (flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead)
8 = AC or Alternating Current or Direct DCAP current electrode positive “+”
Mo = Molybdenum in the material after the deposit.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES
The selection of electrodes for a specific application, in general, is based on the following factors:
· Mechanical properties of the base metal to be welded · Chemical composition of the base metal to be welded · thickness and shape of the base metal to be welded. · Specifications and conditions of service of the structure to be manufactured. · Heat treatment to be applied to the structure to manufacture · welding positions possible during manufacture · Type of welding current and polarity to be used. · Design union. · production efficiency and working conditions.
Electrodes nonconsumable are made of tungsten (or sometimes carbon), which resist melting by arc. Despite its name, a non – consumable electrode gradually wears during the welding process (vaporization is the primary mechanism) and occurs similarly to gradual wear of a cutting tool in a machining operation.
AW for processes using non-consumable electrodes, any filler used in metal operation must be provided through a separate wire that is fed into the weld pool.
In the arc welding, high temperatures cause metals intensely to oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen reactions air bind. The mechanical properties of the welded joint can seriously degraded by these reactions. To protect the welding operation of this unwanted result, almost all processes of arc welding provide some means of protecting the arc air in the environment. This is accomplished by covering the electrode tip, the arc and the molten weld pool with a blanket of flux or gas or both, which inhibits weld metal exposure to air.
Common protective gases include argon and helium, as both are inert. In welding of ferrous metals with certain processes AW oxygen and carbon dioxide are used, usually in combination with argon or helium, to produce an oxidizing atmosphere or to control the shape of the weld.
A flux is a substance used to prevent the formation of oxides and other undesirable contaminants or to dissolve and facilitate its removal. During welding, the flux melts and becomes a liquid slag which covers and protects the operation molten weld metal. The slag hardens after cooling and should be removed with a chisel or brush. Typically a flux is formed to meet several additional functions that include: 1) providing a protective atmosphere for the welding, 2) stabilize the electric arc and 3) reduce spattering.
The method of fluxing is different for each process. Among the incorporation techniques include: 1) emptying the granular flux in the welding operation, 2) using an electrode coated with flux material rod, in which the coating melts during welding to cover the operation and 3) using containing flux cored electrodes in the core, which is released as the electrode is consumed.These techniques are best discussed in the particular descriptions of processes AW.
Power source in arc welding.
In arc welding they are used both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). AC machines are less expensive to purchase and operate, but generally are limited to welding ferrous metals. The DC unit can be used on all metals with good results and generally characterized by better control of the electric arc.
In all processes of arc welding, energy to drive the operation is the product of the current I through the electric arc and voltage E through it. This energy is converted into heat, but not all the heat is transferred to the work surface. Convection, conduction, radiation and splashes are losses that reduce the amount of usable heat.
WELDING PROCESSES USING ARC ELECTRODES CONSUMABLES.
Metal welding shielded arc. The metal arc welding protected (English shielded metal arc welding, SMAW), it is a process of arc welding using a consumable electrode and consists of a rod filler metal coated with chemical materials a flux and provide protection. The process is illustrated in the following figures.
Sometimes the process called welding rod. The welding rod normally has a length between 230 to 460 mm and a diameter of 2.5 mm to 9.5. The filler metal used in the rod must be compatible with the metal being welded and therefore, the composition should be very similar to the base metal. The coating consists of powdered cellulose (cotton and wood powder) mixed with oxides, carbonates and other integrated ingredients using a silicate binder. Sometimes they included in the coating metal powder to increase the amount of filler metal and adding alloying elements. The heat welding process melts the coating and provides a protective atmosphere and slag for the welding operation. Also it helps to stabilize the arc and regulates the speed at which the electrode is melted.
During operation, the end of the bare metal welding rod (which is at the other end of the weld) is held in a support electrode connected to the power source. The support has an insulated handle to take it and handle the welder. The currents that are regularly used in SMAW vary between 30 and 300 A and 15 to 45 V. The selection of appropriate parameters of energy depends on the metals being welded, the type and length of the electrode and the penetration depth required welding. The current transformer, the connecting cables and the electrode holder can be purchased at several thousand dollars.
Typically, the metal shielded arc welding is performed manually and common applications include construction, installation of pipelines, structures , machinery, shipbuilding, manufacturing shops and repair work. It is preferred over welding oxygen and fuel gas to 4.8 mm thicker than because of its higher energy density sections. The equipment is portable and inexpensive, making the SMAW the most versatile and widely used among the processes AW process.Base metals including steels, stainless steels, cast irons and certain non ferrous alloys. It is not used or rarely used in aluminum and its alloys, as well as copper alloys and titanium.
The disadvantage of metal arc welding protected as production operation comes from using rods of consumable electrodes because they must be replaced periodically due to wear. This reduces the time of electric arc welding in this process. Another limitation is the current level that can be used, because the length of the electrode varies during operation and this affects the heating of the electrode resistance, current levels must be maintained within a safe range or coating will overheat and melt prematurely when you start using a new welding rod. Some other processes arc welding overcome the limitations of the length of the welding rod in this process, using an electrode wire is fed continuously. Metal arc welding and gas or MIG (metal inert gas) is also known as gas Metal arc or MAG metal arc welding and gas . SMAEG (English gas metal arc welding, GMAW) is a process in which the electrode is a consumable metal wire and bare protection is provided by flooding the arc with a gas. The bare wire is fed in automatically and continuously from a roll through the welding gun.
In the GMAW wire diameters ranging from 0.8 to to 6.4 mm are used, the size depends on the thickness of the parts to be joined and the desired rate of deposition.
For protection inert gases such as argon and helium and active gases such as carbon dioxide are used. The choice of gases (and mixtures thereof)
They depend on the material to be welded, like other factors. Inert gases are used to weld aluminum alloys and stainless steels, while CO2 is typically used for steel welding low carbon and medium. The combination bare wire electrode and shielding gases remove slag coating on the welding drop and therefore avoid the need for manual cleaning and grinding of the slag.For this reason, the process gas GMWA and it is ideal for multi-pass welding in the same union.
Different metals in GMAW and process variations themselves used have given rise to different names. The first time the process was introduced in the late forties, was applied to aluminum welding using an inert gas (argon) for electric arc protection. This process was called metal inert gas welding , SMGI (English MIG welding, metal inert gas welding). When welding process is applied to steel, it was found that inert gases were expensive and CO2 was used as a substitute. Therefore, the term applied welding with CO2. Some refinements in the process for welding steel led to the use of mixtures of gases, including carbon dioxide and argon, and even oxygen and argon.
The MIG process operates in DC (direct current) usually with the wire as the positive electrode.This is known as “Negative Polarity” (reverse polarity). “Positive polarity” (straight polarity) is rarely used by their little transfer of filler metal from the wire to the workpiece. Welding currents ranging from 50 amperes up to 600 amperes in many cases voltages 15V to 32V, a self-stabilizing is obtained with the use of a system power source constant potential (constant voltage) consistent power and arc wire.
Ongoing developments in MIG welding process have become a process applicable to all commercially important metals such as steel, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and some others. Materials above 0.76 mm thick may be welded in any position, including flat, vertical and overhead.
It’s very simple to choose the team, wire or electrode, the gas of the application and the optimum conditions to produce high quality welds at very low cost.
The basic process MIG includes three very different techniques: Transfer by “Short Circuit” transfer “Globular” and the transfer of “Arc Spray” (Spray Arc). These techniques describe the manner in which the metal is transferred from the wire to the molten solder. Transfer by short circuit, also known as “short arc”, “thick Transfer” and “Micro Wire”, metal transfer occurs when an electrical short circuit is established, this occurs when the metal at the wire tip contacts with molten solder. Transfer spray (spray arc) of molten metal droplets called “Moltens” are stripped from the wire tip and projected by the electromagnetic force to the molten solder. In the globular transfer process it occurs when the molten metal droplets are large enough to fall under the influence of gravity. The factors that determine how the moltens are transferred are the welding current, the wire diameter, the distance of the arc (voltage), the characteristics of the power source and the gas used in the process.
MIG welding is a versatile process, which can deposit weld at a very high rank and in any position. The process is widely used in steel sheets of low and medium-sized manufacturing and aluminum alloy structures particularly where there is a high requirement for manual labor or work welder.
Since its appearance in the world of welding, all regulatory agencies and classification of filler metals took very seriously this process and creating your own classification code was essential, in the case of the American Welding Society AWS two separate codes, one for alloys low carbon or also known as mild steel and one for alloys of high carbon content or where the final chemical composition of the material contributed was changed dramatically were created.
MIG welding equipment.
Welding generator Most suitable for the MIG welding process generators are rectifiers and converters (DC devices).
The direct current with reverse polarity improves the melting wire increases the penetration power, has excellent cleaning action and is what allows for better results.
In MIG welding, heat is generated by current flowing through the arc established between the electrode tip wire and the part. The arc voltage varies with length. To achieve uniform welding, both voltage and the arc length must be held constant. In principle, this can do it in two ways; (1) Feeding the wire at the same rate at which it will melting; or (2), melting the wire at the same speed with the power occurs.
Schematic diagram of MIG team :
MIG welding equipment.
1. A welding machine. 2. A feeder that controls the wire feed at the required rate. 3. A welding gun to directly run the wire to the weld area. 4. A protective gas to avoid contamination of theweld. 5. A spool of wire type and diameter specified.
MIG benefits system.
1. generates slag. 2. High deposition rate. 3. High deposition efficiency. 4. Easy to use. 5.Minimal spatter. 6. Applicable to high ranges of thicknesses. 7. Low smoke. 8. It is economical.9. The gun and welding cables are lightweight making it easier handling. 10. It is one of the most versatile among all welding systems. 11. Speed of deposition. 12. High performance. 13.Possibility of automation.
WELDING PROCESSES USING ELECTRODE ARC unpalatable.
Tungsten welding arc and gas.
Welding tungsten arc and gas STAEG (English gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW), (Englishtungsten inert gas welding, TIG welding). The GTAW process can be performed with or without a filler metal is a process using a non – consumable tungsten electrode and an inert gas to protect the electric arc. Often, this process is called tungsten inert welding gas. payon
Tungsten welding arc and gas.
When a filler metal is used, it is added to the weld pool from a separate rod which is melted by the heat of the electric arc. Tungsten is a good material for electrode because of its high melting point of 3410 ° C. Shielding gases used normally include argon, helium or a mixture thereof.
The TIG system is applicable to almost all metals in a wide range of thicknesses. It is also used to attach various combinations of different metals. Its most common applications include aluminum and stainless steel. Cast iron, cast iron, lead and tungsten are difficult to weld through this process. Welding applications in steel, TIG welding is generally slower and more costly than the processes of arc welding consumable electrode, except when thin sections are included as very high quality welds are required. When thin sheets with tungsten inert gas at very low tolerances no filler metal is added welded. The process is performed manually or by machine and automated methods for all types of joints. The advantages of TIG system are: high quality, no spatter due to a filler metal is not transferred through the arc and no cleaning is required or very reduced flux because it is not used. Visit Anti spatter spray for details.
TIG Welding was initially developed for the purpose of welding anticorrosive metals and other hard metals welding, despite the passage of time, its application has expanded to include both welds and hardfacing (hardfacing) in virtually all metals used commercially.
In any type of welding the best welding, which can be obtained, it is one where the weld and base metal share the same chemical, metallurgical and physical properties, to achieve these conditions, the molten solder must be protected from the atmosphere during welding operation, otherwise, the oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere would combine literally with the molten metal resulting in a weak welding and porosity. In TIG welding the weld area is protected from the atmosphere by an inert gas which is fed through the torch, argon and helium can be used successfully in this process, argon is used mainly for its great versatility in the application successful of a variety of metals, in addition to enabling high performance with a low flow solder to run the process. Helium generates a hotter arc, allowing an increase in the arc voltage of 50-60%. This extra heat is especially useful when welding is applied in very heavy sections. The mixture of these two gases is possible and used to reap the benefits of both, but the selection of the gas or gas mixture depend on the materials to be welded.
Since the atmosphere is isolated 100% welding area and a very fine and precise application of heat control, TIG welds are stronger, more flexible and more resistant to corrosion than welds made with the regular process Manual arc (coated electrode). Besides the fact that no flux is needed, this type of welding makes applicable to a wide range of different metal binding procedures.
It is impossible for corrosion occurs due to flux residues trapped in welding and cleaning procedures in the post-welding are eliminated, the whole process runs without splashing or sparks, fusion welding can be performed in almost all metals used industrially, including aluminum alloys, stainless steel, magnesium alloys, nickel and alloys based on nickel, copper, copper-silicon, copper-nickel, silver, phosphor bronze, steel alloys high carbon and low carbon , cast Iron (cast iron) and others. The process is also widely known for its versatility for welding dissimilar materials and applying layers of different materials hardening steel.
The power source for TIG can be AC or DC, however, some outstanding characteristics obtained with each type, make each type of current best suitable for certain specific applications. Welding arc plasma.
Welding arc plasma, SPA (in English plasma arc welding, PAW) is a special form of tungsten welding arc and gas in which a plasma arc welding controlled the area goes. In PAW, a tungsten electrode is placed within a specially designed nozzle, which focuses a stream of inert gas at high speed (eg, argon or mixtures of argon and hydrogen) in the region of the electric arc to form an arc current of intensely hot plasma at high speed, as in the following figures. Argon, argon-hydrogen and helium are also used as protective gas arc
Temperatures in the welding arc plasma are 2800 ° C or higher, and high enough to melt any known metal. The reason for these high temperatures in PAW (much higher than TIG) derived from the narrowness of the electric arc. Although normal energy levels used in the welding arc plasma are lower than those used in welding tungsten arc and gas, the energy is highly concentrated to produce a plasma jet of a small diameter and an energy density very high.
The welding resistance , SR (in English resistance welding, RW), is a group of processes fusion welding using a combination of heat and pressure to obtain a coalescence, heat is generated by an electric resistance facing current flow at the junction to be welded. The main components in resistance welding shown in the following figures for an operation resistance spot welding, most widely used process in the group.
Components include the working parts to be welded (typically parts foil), two opposing electrodes, means for applying pressure designed to tighten the part between the electrodes and an AC power adapter from which applies a controlled current.
The operation produces a fusion zone between the two sides, termed a weld nugget in welding.
Compared to arc welding, resistance welding does not use protective gases, fluxes or filler metal and electrodes that conduct electrical current for the process are not consumable, the RW is classified as a process of fusion welding because the heat applied causes melting of butting surfaces complexion. However, there are exceptions. Some welding operations based on resistance heating using temperatures below the melting point of the base metals, so a merger does not occur. PROCESSES resistance welding.
Resistance spot welding.
The resistance spot welding is by far the predominant process in this group. It is widely used in the mass production of automobiles, household appliances, metal furniture and other products made from sheet metal. If one considers that the body of a normal car has about 10,000 individual welds points and that annual automobile production worldwide is measured in tens of millions of units, it is possible to appreciate the economic importance of welding points.
The process is used to join sheet metal parts with a thickness of 3 mm or less, using a series of point weldings in situations where watertight assembly is required. The size and shape of the weld is determined by means of the electrode tip, the most common form of electrode is round;but hexagonal, square and other shapes are also used. The resulting weld nugget usually has a diameter of 5 to 10 mm, with a heat affected zone extending slightly beyond nugget within metates base. If welding is done correctly, your resistance is comparable with the surrounding metal. The cycle in a welding operation points shown in the following figure.
(a) Steps in a cycle of spot welding, and (b) graph of the pressure force and the current during the cycle . The sequence is: (1) inserted between the open electrode parts, (2) the electrodes are closed and a force is applied, (3) welding time (current is active), (4) the current is turned off, but stays or force is increased (sometimes a reduced current is increased near the end of this step for releasing tension in the region of the weld) and (5) the electrodes are opened and the welded assembly is removed.
Due to their extensive industrial use are available various machines and methods for performing operations welding. The equipment includes spot welding machines with rocker and press type and horn portable welding guns. The welders points rocker, shown in Figure a) andb) have a stationary lower electrode and an upper movable electrode that moves up and down for loading and unloading work. The upper electrode is mounted on a rocker, whose movement is controlled by a pedal operated by the worker. Modern machines can be programmed to control the force and current during the welding cycle.
The welders points press type are designed for a larger work. The upper electrode has a straight – line motion provided by a vertical press, which is operated automatically or hydraulics.The action of the press allows larger forces are applied, and generally controls enable programming complex welding cycles.
The above two types of machines are stationary or static welders points, in which the work is placed in the machine. For heavy and large jobs it is difficult to move and (target) work towards the stationary machines. For these cases, there are portable spot welding guns in different sizes and configurations. These devices consist of two opposing electrodes inside a pliers mechanism. Each unit is lightweight, so a worker or an industrial robot can hold and manipulate. The gun is connected to its own power source and control through flexible electric cables and air hoses. If necessary, cooling of the electrodes is also provided by a hose
with water. Portable spot welding guns are widely used in plants final assembly of automobiles, to weld the sheet metal body. Some of these guns are handled by workers, but industrial robots have become the preferred technology.
Interlock welding resistance.
In welding splined resistance, BE (English resistance seam welding, RSEW) , the electrodes rod-shaped welding points are replaced with rotating wheels, as shown in the figure, and a series of welds is overlapping points along the joint.
The process produces tight junctions and industrial applications include the production of fuel tanks, mufflers cars and other containers made of sheet metal.
Technically, RSEW is as spot welding, except that the electrodes on wheels introduce certain complexities. Since the operation is usually done continuously, and no separate forms must be keyed along a straight or curved line evenly.
Interlock welding machines are similar to spot welders pressure type, except that wheels electrodes are used instead of normal rod shaped electrodes. Often cooling the work and the welding wheels splined resistance is necessary, this is achieved by directing water to the top and bottom surfaces of the working portion near the electrode wheels.
Welding by projection , SEP (in English résistance projection welding, RPW) is a resistance welding process in which coalescence occurs in one or more relatively small cash points in the parts. These contact points are determined by the design of the parts to be joined and may consist of projections, prints or intersections localized parts.
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